An Automated Fare Collection System (AFC) are an essential component of sustainable, high-quality urban transportation services. However, its implementation is a difficult and far-reaching endeavour that affects all aspects of a transportation organisation, dramatically increases user involvement with the transportation service, and may take many years to accomplish. In short, AFCs are not easy IT projects. Successful projects recognised early on that setbacks and modifications along the route are not unusual, but rather to be expected. However, with proper planning and execution, as well as a responsible private sector partner, there is no reason why AFC cannot flourish and become a significant component of an accessible, high-quality public transportation system. Despite its promise, AFC adoption remains low across the EBRD's countries of operation. And primarily restricted to the larger capitals and cities A multitude of impediments prevent further expansion. These necessitate tailored solutions to their regulatory, contractual, and legal contexts, as well as their operational environment.