A web server is a software package and hardware that uses hypertext transfer protocol and alternative protocols to retort to shopper requests revamped the globe Wide net. the most job of an internet server is to show website content through storing, process and delivering webpages to users.
A web server is a software package and hardware that uses hypertext transfer protocol and alternative protocols to retort to shopper requests revamped the globe Wide net. the most job of an internet server is to show website content through storing, process and delivering webpages to users. Besides hypertext transfer protocol, net servers additionally support SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and FTP (File Transfer Protocol), used for email, file transfer, and storage.
Web server hardware is connected to the web and permits knowledge to be changed with alternative connected devices, whereas net server software package controls, however, a user accesses hosted files. the online server method is an associate degree example of the client/server model. All computers that host Web sites should have a web server software package.
Web servers area unit utilized in net hosting, or the hosting of information for web sites and web-based applications -- or web applications.
How do net servers work?
When an internet browser, like Google Chrome or Firefox, wants a file that is hosted on an internet server, the browser can request the file by hypertext transfer protocol. once the request is received by the online server, the hypertext transfer protocol server can settle for the request, notice the content and send it back to the browser through hypertext transfer protocol.
More specifically, once a browser requests a page from an internet server, the method can follow a series of steps. First, an individual can specify a computer address in an exceedingly net browser's address bar. the online browser can then acquire the information science address of the name -- either translating the computer address through DNS (Domain Name System) or by looking in its cache. this can bring the browser to an internet server.
The browser can then request the particular file from the online server by associate degree hypertext transfer protocol request. the online server can respond, causation the browser the requested page, again, through hypertext transfer protocol. If the requested page doesn't exist or if one thing goes wrong, the online server can respond with a slip-up message. The browser can then be ready to show the webpage.
Multiple domains can also be hosted on one network server.
Examples of net server use
Web servers usually come back as a part of a bigger package of the internet- and intranet-related programs that area unit used for:
sending and receiving emails;
downloading requests for File Transfer Protocol (FTP) files; and
building and commercial enterprise webpages.
Many basic net servers will support server-side scripting, which is employed to use scripts on an internet server that may customize the response to the shopper. Server-side scripting runs on the server machine and usually features a broad feature set, which incorporates info access. The server-side scripting method will use Active Server Pages (ASP), machine-readable text Preprocessor (PHP), and alternative scripting languages. This method additionally permits hypertext markup language documents to be created dynamically.
Dynamic vs. static net servers
A web server is wont to serve either static or dynamic content. Static refers to the content being shown as is, whereas dynamic content is updated and adjusted. A static net server can comprise a laptop and hypertext transfer protocol software package. it's thought of static as a result of the sever can send hosted files as is to a browser.
Dynamic net browsers can comprise an internet server associate degreed alternative software package like an application server and info. it's thought of dynamic as a result of the applying server is wont to update any hosted files before they're sent to a browser. the online server will generate content once it's requested from the info. although this method is a lot versatile, it's additionally a lot of sophisticated.
Common and high net server software package on the market
There area unit variety of common net servers on the market, some including:
- Apache hypertext transfer protocol Server. Developed by Apache software package Foundation, it's a free and open supply net server for Windows, Mac OS X, Unix, Linux, Solaris, and alternative operating systems; it wants the Apache license.
- Microsoft web info Services (IIS). Developed by Microsoft for Microsoft platforms; it's not open-sourced, however wide used.
- Nginx. a well-liked open supply net server for directors thanks to its light-weight resource utilization and quantifiability. It will handle several cooccurring sessions because of its event-driven design. Nginx can also be used as a proxy server and cargo balancer.
- Lighttpd. A free net server that comes with the FreeBSD software. it's seen as quick and secure, whereas overwhelming less mainframe power.
- Sun Java System net Server. A free net server from Sun Microsystems that may run on Windows, UNIX operating system, and OS. it's well-equipped to handle medium to giant websites.
- Leading net servers to embody Apache, Microsoft's web info Services (IIS), and Nginx -- pronounced engine X. alternative net servers embody Novell's NetWare server, Google net Server (GWS), and IBM's family of Domino servers.
Considerations in selecting an internet server embody however well it works with the software and alternative servers; its ability to handle server-side programming; security characteristics; and also the commercial enterprise, program, and site-building tools that associate with it. net servers may have completely different configurations and set default values. to make high performance, an internet server, high output, and low latency can facilitate.
Web server security practices
There area unit many security practices people will set around net server use that may bring safer expertise. some example security practices will embody processes like:
a reverse proxy, that is meant to cover an enclosed server associate degreed act as a go-between for traffic originating on an enclosed server;
access restriction through processes like limiting the online host's access to infrastructure machines or mistreatment Secure Socket Shell (SSH);
keeping net servers patched and up to this point to assist make sure the net server is not prone to vulnerabilities;
network observation to create certain there's not any or unauthorized activity; and
using a firewall and SSL as firewalls will monitor hypertext transfer protocol traffic whereas having a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) will facilitate keeping knowledge secure.