Human growth hormone or somatotropin in its normal human version, is a protein peptide hormone which stimulates cell reproduction, cell growth, and body mass and strength. It is naturally produced by the pituitary gland in the brain that helps regulate metabolism and growth. Recent studies suggest that it may also be responsible for increased sexual vitality, athletic performance, immune function, and memory, among other benefits. It also plays an important role in the regeneration of cells.
The production of the human growth hormone occurs in the anterior pituitary gland. Production increases during childhood and decreases with age. However, despite the decline in production, levels of HGH remain high in adults. This may be due to the fact that HGH deficiency results in the accumulation of body fat and decreases cell regeneration. Reduced blood supply to the brain and kidney can cause a decline in the production of the hormone.
Human growth hormone deficiency is an undesirable condition due to the many negative effects it causes. One of the main symptoms is the inability to lose weight due to inadequate energy levels. People with this disorder are often overweight or obese due to the loss of muscle mass, as well as the decreased absorption of nutrients into the body due to excessive fat accumulation. Other side effects include insomnia, joint pain, poor digestion, dry mouth, increased risk of infections, and poor cardiovascular health.
Research has shown that human growth hormone stimulation promotes tissue regeneration. The increase in growth hormone signaling is believed to be responsible for the regeneration of skin, muscle, and bone tissues. In addition to these common areas, somatotropin has been found to be responsible for the production of sperm and multiple cell types throughout the body. The main article mentioned above is the result of somatotropin stimulating the production of somatotrope cells, or cells that support bone growth. Other studies have shown that somatotropin is responsible for the redirection of cell division, allowing new bone growth.
The primary hormone receptor for human growth hormone is located on the X chromosome in males, and the Y chromosome in females. The second receptor is found on the rapamycin-binding protein gene, or kb, in humans. Therefore, injections of the growth hormone to younger individuals is accompanied with injections of the corresponding hormones onto the targeted areas. This method has been used for years to replace lost growth hormone production.
While human growth hormone is believed to be responsible for the stimulation of cell growth within the body, another hormone known as nadosteron is believed to stimulate cell division and proliferation. This hormone is found within the photoreceptor layer in the eye. Studies have indicated a connection between high levels of nadosteron and age-related macular degeneration. These studies indicate that although it may not directly stimulate growth hormone production, it may slow down the aging process and increase cell division.